The 16th century was defined by the calendar of Earth as occurring from the year 1501 through the year 1600.
- The T-Rogorans conquer the Skrreea. They kill most of the Skrreean leaders, and force the rest of the population to work as laborers and servants. (DS9: "Sanctuary")
- According to Q, in this century, Humans are fighting each other over "tribal god images". (TNG: "Encounter at Farpoint")
- Autopsy reports relevant to duels over a woman going as far back as this year are later included in The Doctor's database. (VOY: "Parturition")
- An attempted Spanish invasion of England is thwarted. (ENT: "Future Tense")
- In western Europe, early experiments with the optical microscope are made. Sketchbooks and other forms of art of the time record early observations of a more or less scientific nature, as seen during Captain Janeway's Leonardo da Vinci holodeck program. (VOY: "Scorpion", "Concerning Flight")
|15th century||Timeline||17th century|
- T-Rogorans became warp-capable in 1570 AD. (Star Trek: Star Charts)
- The following events are from the fourth edition of the Star Trek Encyclopedia (vol. 1, pp. 146, 154, 176, 215, & 324 & vol. 2, pp. 41, 269):
- The Scottish Highlanders use the claymore for the first time.
- Don Juan first appears in Earth literature.
- 1502 - The Leonardo da Vinci's workshop is set around this year.
- 1506 - Christopher Columbus dies.
- 1519 - Leonardo da Vinci "dies".
- 1564 - William Shakespeare is born.
- 1595 - A Midsummer Night's Dream is written by William Shakespeare.
- circa 1599 - Macbeth is written by William Shakespeare.
- circa 1600 - Hamlet is written by William Shakespeare.