According to Commander Spock, science officer of the USS Enterprise, 892-IV had a striking resemblance to Earth. However, as much as there were similarities, there were differences. The proportion of land to water, density (5.5 g/cm3), and atmosphere (78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen) were exactly like those on Earth. However, unlike Earth, the diameter at the equator (7,917 miles) and layout of the land masses were different. (TOS: "Bread and Circuses")
By the mid-23rd century, the planet had reached the development of Earth's 20th century. Technology included radio communications, road system and powered transportation (such as the Jupiter 8), but no atomic power. Gladiatorial arena games became televised. With each century, even slaves received rights to medicine and government payments in their old age; the Empire eventually managed to stop rebellions and even wars for four hundred years, achieving stability.
The Romans believed in a pantheon of gods, but a nascent movement known as Children of the Son, a parallel to Christianity on Earth, started to be embraced by gladiators, slaves, and even senators, disrupting the stability of the conservative Empire.
In 2262, the Federation class 4 stardrive survey vessel SS Beagle was badly damaged by a meteor in the system and a landing party beamed down to obtain iridium ore for repairs. The party was met by the locals, led by Proconsul Claudius Marcus who considered it potentially ruinous to his highly conservative society if word of its existence should be carried elsewhere; the officers were regarded as captured barbarians and forced to fight as gladiators. However, the Beagle's Captain R.M. Merik became First Citizen.
Captain James T. Kirk and the crew of the Enterprise visited the planet 892-IV six years later, on stardate 4040.7, after investigating the debris of the Beagle. They were held captives both by fugitives and later the proconsul and Merik. The Enterprise managed to escape and speculated that the new religion might bring the transformation of the Empire, much like Christianity did to the Roman Empire. (TOS: "Bread and Circuses")
According to Star Trek: Star Charts (p. 54), FGC-892 IV was located in the Beta Quadrant. The official name of the government was the Roman Empire. It was a non-aligned world that hadn't yet become warp-capable. The capital city was Rome (β). The dominant species were the humanoid citizens and barbarians. In 2378, there were an estimated 8.6 billion people living on the planet. The society's technology was nearly equivalent to the mid-21st century on Earth.
This planet was described in the The Worlds of the Federation (p. 108) as being very similar to Earth, to the point that the shape of its continents and other planets of its solar system were nearly identical. Both the original and the remastered version of "Bread and Circuses" showed a very different continental arrangement. This work established the indigenous name of the planet as Magna Roma. It is located in the UFC 892 (β) system.
The planet was revisited in the novel The Captains' Honor set 100 years after the encounter by the original Enterprise crew. The novel detailed how the alternate Rome conquered their world, with the key divergence being that this world's Rome was able to extend into all of Africa (or the equivalent of such) and use the captured resources and manpower to launch wars and take over the rest of the planet. After the visit of Kirk and company, the Children of the Son significantly pacified the planet, and a century later the Romans were now Federation members and were participating in galactic affairs. The Romans possess at least one all-Roman Constitution-class starship, the former USS Farragut renamed the USS Centurion, and ran according to their own methods and principles.
According to the novel The Captain's Honor, the history of Magna Roma also diverged from Earth's when Lucius Aelius Sejanus succeeded in killing Emperor Tiberius and his entire family, making himself emperor in his place, thus strengthening the Roman Empire. In Earth's history, Sejanus' attempt to overthrow Tiberius failed and he was strangled in prison.
According to the novel The Poisoned Chalice, the people of Magna Roma were descended from humans transplanted from Earth by the Preservers. A Magna Romanii named Atia served as first officer of the USS Lionheart.