Prior to first contact with Humans in 2151, the Akaali homeworld had an abundant variety of flora and fauna. This pre-industrial planet had a population of about five hundred million. There were dozens of cities on each continent. The outskirts of these cities had smaller populations with farms. There were dozens of languages.
A section of the eastern continent was divided into provinces. In one of these provinces, there was a city where everyone was required to carry identification papers. The apothecary Riaan owned a map of the city, which she kept in her apothecary shop.
In early 2150, a Malurian named Garos began secretly mining veridium ore on the planet. This world had yet to officially encounter an alien species, unaware they were already being visited by an alien species. Foreign chemicals in the drills began seeping into the water supply, poisoning to death thousands of Akaali due to a disease. Riaan began suspecting the newcomer Garos, and investigated his actions.
In July 2151, Enterprise NX-01 visited the planet. Upon entering orbit, Enterprise noted that there were no artificial satellites or starships in the area. Captain Jonathan Archer decided to send an away team to visit the eastern continent, after detecting an alien antimatter reactor there. Following further investigation, they forced Garos and his cohorts to leave the planet. Captain Archer then removed the mining equipment, had Doctor Phlox synthesize an antidote for those afflicted, and spoke with the Vulcans, who agreed to check on the planet from time to time to make sure the Malurians were no longer taking advantage of the Akaali. (ENT: "Civilization")
In the script of ENT: "Civilization", the Akaali homeworld was described as having "deep blue oceans." When T'Pol is informing Archer about a farm on the planet, dialogue that was scripted but unused for the episode had T'Pol telling Archer that a dry ravine was a few kilometers north of the farm, which they agreed was "a good spot to set down a shuttlepod" without being seen.
In a scene that was scripted for the end of ENT: "Home" (and included in the ENT Season 4 Blu-ray) but never filmed, the Akaali homeworld was briefly mentioned, as one of several small rocks which Archer left at his father's grave had been taken by the captain from the Akaali homeworld.
According to Star Trek: Star Charts (p. 54) and Stellar Cartography: The Starfleet Reference Library ("Federation Historical Highlights, 2161-2385"), the Akaali (Omega Sagittarii) system was located in the Beta Quadrant. The planet Akaali (Omega Sagittarii III) wasn't unified under a planetary government. Instead, the world was divided between several nation-states. The world was non-aligned, pending the development of warp drive. The estimated population of this non-aligned world in 2370 was 200 million Akaalans. The society roughly paralleled 20th century Earth, and the planet was quarantined.