Aldebaran III was the inhabited third planet orbiting the primary Aldebaran, in the Alpha Quadrant. This planet was located near the Ficus sector. (TOS: "The Deadly Years"; TNG: "Up The Long Ladder", okudagram; DIS: "Magic to Make the Sanest Man Go Mad")
During the 2260s, Doctors Janet and Theodore Wallace performed experiments using various carbohydrate compounds to slow down the degeneration of plant life at the Federation outpost on this planet. (TOS: "The Deadly Years")
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Background information Edit
According to StarTrek.com, Aldebaran III was a long-time Federation member. This website, and the Star Trek Encyclopedia (4th ed., vol. 1, p. 16) – in an article about the Aldebaran system – treated Aldebaron III and Aldebaran III as the same planet.