The Amargosa observatory was a Federation space station that was in service in the late 24th century. The observatory was located in orbit of the Amargosa star and was used for scientific research regarding the star. Its coordinates were 917358-358268-102879.

In 2371, the station had a complement of nineteen personnel, including an El-Aurian named Dr. Tolian Soran. With the help of the Klingon outlaw Duras sisters, he had secured trilithium stolen from the Romulans, planning to build a trilithium weapon which was capable of stopping all nuclear reactions in a star, thereby causing its collapse. With this he armed solar probes which were hidden in a secret stash behind a magnetically sealed door protected by a dampening field.

The USS Enterprise-D answered a distress call from the observatory, which had been raided by Romulans who were searching for their stolen trilithium. Soran and four other scientists survived the attack and were rescued by an away team from the Enterprise. Having discovered that the Romulans were looking for trilithium, Geordi La Forge and Lieutenant Commander Data arrived on the station to investigate and discovered the hidden solar probe, and Soran, who had escaped the custody of the Enterprise in order to use the weapon on the Amargosa star. Commander William T. Riker and Lt. Commander Worf came to their rescue, but they were unable to stop Soran from capturing La Forge in the process.

After Soran launched his weapon, the star collapsed and the resulting level 12 shock wave destroyed the observatory, along with everything else in the Amargosa system. (Star Trek Generations)

The interior of the station featured jewel button control panels, intercoms, and graphic displays identical to those seen on the original USS Enterprise. From an in-universe perspective, this suggested either that the station was more than one hundred years old at the time of its destruction, or its computer systems were that old. The control center of the station was a re-use of the long standing refit-USS Enterprise bridge set. (Star Trek: The Next Generation Companion, 3rd ed, p. 312)
The model of the observatory was reused for the wormhole relay station in DS9: "Destiny".
In the video game adaptation of the movie, it was possible to avert Soran's plans and save the star and the station.