This page contains information regarding Star Trek: Discovery, and thus may contain spoilers.
Andoria was an inhabited moon orbiting a ringed gas giant in the Andorian system, in the Alpha Quadrant. It was the homeworld of the Andorian and the Aenar races. Andoria took part in talks to form a Coalition of Planets in 2155 and became a founding member of the United Federation of Planets in 2161.
Andoria was located in a neighboring system to Vulcan, which led to a series of conflicts between the Andorian Empire and the Vulcans. In 2154, the Vulcan High Command deployed a fleet of twelve starships to Regulus, which lay just outside Andorian sensor range, preparing to attack Andoria. (ENT: "Kir'Shara") Andoria was also relatively close to the Sol system, and the Andorian Empire occupied space between Babel and Tellar Prime. (ENT: "Babel One") In the 24th century, Andoria was located near to the Cardassian border. (DS9: "Tears of the Prophets")
There was contact between the Andorians and the Aenar in the distant past, but eventually communication ceased and the two races came to remember the other only in myths and stories. It was not until around 2104 that contact was re-established between them. (ENT: "The Aenar")
The moons of Andoria were among multiple locations that could be experienced in a 2256 demonstration of the possibilities of spore drive; that year, Captain Gabriel Lorca pointed out to Michael Burnham that, while journeying on the mycelial network, a traveler might blink and, before they knew it, they were visiting the moons of Andoria. (DIS: "Context Is for Kings")
In a possible 3186 experienced by Gabrielle Burnham, Andoria was one of the worlds where all life had been eradicated using antimatter detonations, apparently by Control. Traveling back to 2257, she communicated her memories to Spock, who later shared them with Michael Burnham. (DIS: "If Memory Serves", "Perpetual Infinity")
Andoria was an ice world, with a Human-breathable oxygen-nitrogen atmosphere. Andorian cities were underground and took their energy from geothermal activity. The cities were connected to each other by thousands of kilometers of tunnels.
Only during rare heatwaves would the temperature on Andoria rise above freezing, and even then only for a few weeks at a time. In the northern wastes, a temperature reading of -28° was not uncommon during mid-summer. (ENT: "The Aenar")
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In the final draft script of ENT: "Fight or Flight" (dated 1 May 2001), Andoria was referred to as having once been visited by Travis Mayweather and his family aboard their ship. However, this reference was later changed to Lavinius (by or on 27 June 2001, when a revised final draft of the script was issued), and the scene was ultimately deleted.
In contrast with the script of "Broken Bow" referring to Andoria as having a pair of moons, ENT: "The Aenar" attempted to establish the Andorian homeworld itself as a moon, orbiting a gas giant. This was devised as an attempt to help explain the contradiction of why it was sometimes called Andor and sometimes it was called Andoria, the gas giant being Andor and the moon Andoria. (ENT Season 4 DVD special features; Star Trek: The Official Starships Collection, issue 37, p. 14) This would, however, seem to contradict Worf's claim in DS9: "Change of Heart" that Andor has mountains. While a shot of the planet seen in "The Aenar" thus appears to depict Andoria as a moon of the much larger planet closeby, this is never explicitly stated in the episode.
The Last Unicorn Games Star Trek RPG and Samuel John Ross used information about Andoria, a frozen world first published in Star Trek: The Role Playing Game, for the work The Andorians: Among the Clans. Having been reading this publication, Mike Sussman was inspired by the book's cover while working on Star Trek: Enterprise. He later stated, "I remember saying to Manny Coto, who was our season 4 showrunner, 'What do you think of this as a look for the Andorian homeworld?'" (Star Trek: The Official Starships Collection, issue 37, p. 15)
Mike Sussman's suggestion addressed a need to save expenses, as caverns built for an ENT Vulcan trilogy, which had recently wrapped production, could be reused as the Andorian ice caves, simply repainted white. The fact that the sets could be redressed in such a way was one motive for pursuing the idea. Remembering Manny Coto's response to the plan, Sussman relayed, "He said, 'Great, because we can paint our Vulcan sets white and now it's ice!' and that's what we did." (Star Trek: The Official Starships Collection, issue 37, p. 15)
In the final draft script of "The Aenar", Andoria was described as "an icy, M-Class world" with "a stark yet stunning arctic landscape, lit by brilliant sunlight with a slightly bluish hue." The planet was also referred to as having "a driving, howling wind."
Andoria was shown using various methods. "Herman Zimmerman and his team at the art department made wonderful ice cave sets," said Visual Effects Producer Dan Curry. "For the exteriors we used a combination of matte paintings." (Cinefantastique, Vol. 37, No. 2, p. 40)
A particular set that was used as Andoria could be paid for over a longer stretch of time than the Star Trek TV series usually allowed. "We, you know, were able to build a huge set of Andoria," Manny Coto recalled. "And because we played that set over various episodes, we were able to amortize the building of the set and get bigger production value." ("Before Her Time: Decommissioning Enterprise, Part Two: Memorable Voyages", ENT Season 4 Blu-ray special features)
While Star Trek: Enterprise attempted to portray Andoria as a moon, Gabriel Lorca mentions "the moons of Andoria" in DIS: "Context Is for Kings" which would appear to establish that Andoria had its own system of moons. Moons around moons are currently believed to be theoretically possible, but not stable, due to tidal forces causing them to de-orbit.   Lorca may have alternatively been referring to other moons within the Andorian system.
Reference material Edit
According to Star Trek: Star Charts (pp. 19, 36, 52 & 60), Andoria was a class M planet located in the Procyon binary star system. This system consisted of an F-type main-sequence star orbited by an A-type main-sequence star, with Andoria identified as the eighth planet. It was the capital of the Andorian Empire, and a founding member of the United Federation of Planets in 2161. The capital of Andoria was Andor, and 38.2 billion people lived on Andoria. Andorians became warp-capable in 1154 AD. Andoria was located in the Andorian Sector, also known as Sector 006. This sector was the sixth explored by Earth ships. In his final voyage in 2120, Zefram Cochrane visited Andoria.
According to Stellar Cartography: The Starfleet Reference Library ("Federation Historical Highlights, 2161-2385"), Andoria (Andor, or Procyon VIIIA) was a moon of Andor. It was the capital of the Andorian Empire, and a founding member of the UFP in 2161. The capital of Andoria was Laikan. The primary species were Andorian and Aenar. In the late 24th century, there were 1.8 billion Andorians and 4.1 million Aenar living on this moon. Andoria became warp-capable in 1154 AD. In his final voyage in 2120, Zefram Cochrane visited Andoria.
In Worlds of Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, Volume One, Thirishar ch'Thane and Prynn Tenmei note the differences between the names "Andor" and "Andoria". While Tenmei grew up thinking of ch'Thane's homeworld as "Andoria", ch'Thane grew up knowing it as "Andor". Conversely, ch'Thane grew up thinking of Tenmei's homeworld as "Terra", only to discover that Terrans call it "Earth".