This page contains information regarding Star Trek: Picard, and thus may contain spoilers.
Kov once heard from a Vulcan anthropologist, who in turn had once observed a game of football during an Earth expedition, and believed that the object of the game was to "kill the quarterback." (ENT: "Fusion")
In 2366, a Federation anthropological field team studied an extended family of Mintakans at close range on Mintaka III from a camouflaged observation post known as a "duck blind". The duck blind failed when the reactor suffered a serious malfunction, and the anthropologists were discovered by the Mintakans. (TNG: "Who Watches The Watchers")
In 2367, a team of anthropologists led by Dr. Howard Clark were studying an interesting social phenomenon on the planet Ventax II when several members of the team were taken hostage by a group of Ventaxian citizens. The citizens were driven to panic by the apparent arrival of the deity Ardra. (TNG: "Devil's Due")
In 2769, a group of anthropologists observed the construction of the Great Pyramid at Giza. Daniels pointed this out to Jonathan Archer from Daniels' Temporal Observatory, stating that they were making their observations using the proper procedures set forth in the Temporal Accord. (ENT: "Cold Front")