The archaeology and anthropology (or A&A) officer was a scientist aboard Federation starships whose expertise was in archaeology and anthropology.
Lieutenant Carolyn Palamas held the position of A&A officer while serving on the USS Enterprise when it visited Pollux IV in 2267. According to Palamas, her "particular specialties include ancient civilizations, relics, and myths." (TOS: "Who Mourns for Adonais?")
The TOS novel Allegiance in Exile features an a and a officer, Mai Duyen Trinh (β), as one of its central characters.