Arithmetic was the most elementary branch of mathematics, which involved the use of addition, subtraction, division and multiplication.
In 2152, Jonathan Archer told Menos that "we don't do quickly and quietly very well, but we are good at arithmetic." This reflected the fact that Menos alone was in a firefight against Archer, T'Pol and Charles Tucker III. (ENT: "The Seventh")
In 2364, when Data asked Captain Picard whether he would choose one life over one thousand, Picard refused to let arithmetic decide questions like that. (TNG: "Justice")
In 2369, a holographic Isaac Newton asked a similarly holographic Albert Einstein if he couldn't do simple arithmetic, when Einstein incorrectly calculated the bet in a game of poker. (TNG: "Descent")
In 2370, the Barkonian teacher Talur reminded her students to practice their spelling and arithmetic. (TNG: "Thine Own Self")
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