Artillery was a long-range heavy weapon used for ground warfare, providing fire support for weaker infantry and armored units. Military units of artillery pieces were known as batteries.
While visiting Earth in 1944, Tucker and Mayweather piloted a shuttlepod that was attacked by heavy anti-aircraft artillery, forcing them to flee back to the orbiting Enterprise. They later encountered multiple artillery pieces only a few kilometers outside New York City, as part of a German defensive line. (ENT: "Storm Front")
In 2371, Neelix claimed to Kes that he had "gazed into the gaping maw of death – during the Battle of the Pyrithian Gorge, I faced down an entire battery of Haakonian artillery." (VOY: "Jetrel")