The structure was comparable to that of an Earth army, with similar ranks. Officers of the Militia were usually graduates of the Bajoran Military Academy, though many soldiers serving in the post-occupation period earned their rank with demonstrated skills and merit during the resistance.
The militia jointly operated Deep Space 9 with Starfleet. From 2369 to 2375 the station was commanded by a Starfleet command level officer and the executive officer was a Militia officer. When the station's commander, Captain Benjamin Sisko, disappeared in late-2375, his executive, Colonel Kira Nerys, took command.
In the Star Trek: Terok Nor novel Day of the Vipers the Militia predated the Occupation but was disbanded by the Cardassians after it began. Jaro Essa, who had served prior to the Occupation, helped to reestablish the service after the Cardassian withdrawal in Dawn of the Eagles.
In two post-Star Trek: Deep Space Nine continuities, the relaunch novel series by Pocket Books and Star Trek Online, the Militia remained as Bajor's domestic military and security service even after the Bajorans joined the Federation, although many members transferred to Starfleet. However, by Star Trek Online's present day Starfleet had replaced the Militia's naval functions.