In 2153, Jonathan Archer exchanged several spices from the Enterprise NX-01's galley, including cayenne pepper, mustard seed, paprika, and black pepper, to B'Rat Ud in exchange for the formula necessary for synthesizing trellium. (ENT: "Rajiin")
In cooking, pepper was usually added to a recipe in quantities referred to as "to taste." Gideon Seyetik used pepper in his recipe for stew which he cooked for the senior staff of Deep Space 9 in 2370. (DS9: "Second Sight")
The Star Trek Encyclopedia (4th ed., vol. 1, p. 86) described black pepper as a "spice made from the fruit of a flowering Earth vine, dried and ground, valued for its sharp, penetrating aroma. In addition to use as a spice, black pepper has in past Earth culture been used as a medication and even as a medium of exchange."