This page contains information regarding Star Trek: Strange New Worlds, and thus may contain spoilers.
The Mintakans on Mintaka III used bows and arrows for hunting animals and as weapons. Liko, who refused to believe that Jean-Luc Picard was not their "Overseer", shot an arrow at Picard and wounded him. (TNG: "Who Watches The Watchers")
Several of the inhabitants of Alixus' colony, including Vinod, used bows and arrows. After Benjamin Sisko and Miles O'Brien arrived, they were threatened with a number of bows and arrows. Vinod later fired an arrow from the bow at O'Brien's uniform thinking that it was him. (DS9: "Paradise")
When the crew of the USS Voyager was marooned on Hanon IV by Seska and the Kazon-Nistrim, who had taken over the ship, Tuvok fashioned a bow and some arrows, prompting Chakotay to remark that his tribe never used bows and arrows and he had never personally fired one; Tuvok replied that he had made the bow for himself, and that he taught archery science for several years at the Vulcan Institute for Defensive Arts. The bow and arrow was, presumably, previously unknown to the Hanonians, who were taken aback when Tuvok shot one of them in the chest, allowing Chakotay's search party to escape with Kes (who had been captured by the natives) before the natives recovered from their shock and gave chase. Tuvok's arrows proved considerably less effective against the Hanonian land eel in the cave into which he, Chakotay, and the others had fled from the natives. (VOY: "Basics, Part II")
In 2399, Kestra Troi-Riker wielded a bow and arrow while hunting bunnicorns, so that her father could make bunnicorn sausage. Her brother Thaddeus Troi-Riker had also practiced archery, and had owned a longbow and a compound bow. (PIC: "Nepenthe")