Carl Gustav Jung was a famous 20th century Earth psychologist and psychiatrist from Switzerland who founded analytic psychology. Psychology according to Jung's principles was termed Jungian.

In 1932, he devised the concept of seeking therapeutic results from within the imagination, called active imagination technique. Native Americans had begun a similar practice centuries earlier as they consulted an animal guide as counselor during a vision quest. (VOY: "The Cloud")

In 2369, Deanna Troi, while helping William Riker who was having disturbing thoughts while performing the play Frame of Mind, said it was sometimes healthy for individuals when they explore the darker sides of their psyche. Jung called this owning the shadow. (TNG: "Frame of Mind")

Jungian Therapists teachings would explore synchronicities in recent events in order to retrieve an unconscious memory. In 2374, The Doctor integrated the finer points Jung's therapeutic techniques with the techniques of Amanin of Betazed to create his own approach to reconstructing the memory of Seven of Nine. (VOY: "Retrospect")

According to the Star Trek Encyclopedia (4th ed., vol. 1, p. 394), the birth and death years of Carl Jung were 1875 and 1961, respectively.
Although not stated or referenced in dialogue, the "racial subconscious" theory central to the plot of TOS: "Catspaw" is mostly based on Jung's work.

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