The Cochrane deceleration maneuver was a classic and well-known battle tactic in the 23rd century.

In the 2260s, Captain James T. Kirk used the Cochrane deceleration maneuver to defeat a Romulan vessel near Tau Ceti. Spock later used this information to quiz Captain Kirk and Garth of Izar, who had utilized cellular metamorphosis to take on Kirk's form, in an effort to determine which individual was actually Captain Kirk. (TOS: "Whom Gods Destroy")

The maneuver was possibly named after Zefram Cochrane. However, this is not definitively established on screen.
According to the FASA source book The Four Years War (p. 41), the Cochrane deceleration maneuver involved the starship making a full stop and a quick 120-degree stress turn. The maneuver was used just as a faster enemy ship had made an attack run and was about to pass by. The maneuver allowed the starship to attack the aft section of the enemy with its forward torpedo launchers while being protected by its forward shields.

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