(covers information from several alternate timelines)
This page contains information regarding Star Trek: Discovery, and thus may contain spoilers.
A crash landing, also known as a crash or forced landing, was an emergency maneuver that was performed when there was insufficient time to land the ship or craft properly, or when the starship lacked the ability to land. Crash landings were often caused when the vessel was sent hurtling into a planet's atmosphere either too fast or with no control by the helmsman.
In 1967, the Federation timeship Aeon crash-landed in the High Sierras on Earth, near Henry Starling's campsite. Captain Braxton was able to initiate an emergency beam out before the vessel's crash. (VOY: "Future's End")
In 2151, the Klingon Klaang crash-landed his K'toch-class scout ship in a cornfield in Broken Bow, Oklahoma, on the planet Earth. Two Suliban pursuing him also crash landed there shortly after. (ENT: "Broken Bow")
In 2263 in the alternate reality, the USS Enterprise was forced to undergo a saucer separation following an attack by numerous swarm ship vessels. Badly damaged, the saucer crashed on the planet Altamid. (Star Trek Beyond)
In 2371, the USS Enterprise-D was forced to crash its saucer on the surface of Veridian III after it was caught in the shock wave of the exploding stardrive section. At the helm, Deanna Troi had no control over the crash, but the descent of the ship was leveled somewhat by Data rerouting auxiliary power to the lateral thrusters. (Star Trek Generations)
In 2373, the Federation runabout USS Rio Grande was forced to crash-land on an unnamed Class L planet after a bomb planted by the Orion Syndicate exploded causing heavy damage to the ship. (DS9: "The Ascent")
In 2374, the Jem'Hadar fighter captured on Torga IV was used in covert mission to destroy a ketracel-white storage facility. Captain Sisko and his crew successfully completed the mission, but the captured ship was badly damaged in the explosion, disabling the warp drive. Three days later, the ship was attacked by Jem'Hadar forces and completely disabled. Drifting out of control, the captured ship crash-landed in the ocean on an unknown Class M planet. The crew survived and were able to escape the wreck and swim ashore before the ship sank. (DS9: "Rocks and Shoals")
In an alternate 2375, USS Voyager was forced to crash on a Class L planet after being thrown out of slipstream. The vessel would have broken up if they had not attempted to land, but the vessel came in too fast and crashed violently on the planet's surface, destroying one of the nacelles and killing all hands but Ensign Harry Kim and Commander Chakotay, who were on the Delta Flyer. This timeline was averted by the future Kim when he sent course corrections to Seven of Nine, which collapsed the slipstream, saving the crew. (VOY: "Timeless")