(covers information from several alternate timelines)
The Romulan disruptor rifle went through a few changes. In 2368 their rifle was small and thin. By 2371 the rifle had been enlarged and given a much sleeker design. (TNG: "Unification I", "Unification II"; DS9: "Improbable Cause"). By 2387 it had been modified with a more conventional shoulder-braced configuration. (Star Trek)
The Cardassian disruptor rifle, also known as a phase-disruptor rifle, was a much simpler design than the Starfleet Type 3 phaser rifle. It had very few settings on it and fewer components than its alien counterparts. The weapon's output rating was 4.7 megajoules, with 3 millisecond recharge rate and 2 beam settings. Major Kira Nerys said that it could be dragged through the mud and still fire. (DS9: "Return to Grace")
Karnas of Mordan IV displayed two disruptor rifles on the wall behind his desk, one of them was a modified Klingon disruptor rifle. Karnas took the modified Klingon disruptor rifle and aimed at Admiral Mark Jameson but did not shoot. (TNG: "Too Short a Season")
A party of Ferengi led by Quark and Rom with the mission of rescuing their mother Ishka from Dominion captivity were armed with several Ferengi disruptor rifles in 2374. (DS9: "The Magnificent Ferengi")
The Cardassian disruptor rifle was first seen in "The Homecoming".The description Major Kira gives that the Cardassian rifle can be dragged through the mud and still fire is an allusion to the Russian AKM, or Kalashnikov, which is well known for its reliability against the elements.