This page contains information regarding Star Trek: Discovery, and thus may contain spoilers.
(covers information from several alternate timelines)
The modern language had developed in England by around the 16th century, and began spreading across Earth in earnest in the 17th century as Old Britain expanded its naval power over the planet's oceans and claimed many colonial territories. As a result, the language became commonly spoken in such nation-states as Australia, Bermuda, Canada, Fiji, India, Ireland, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore, South Africa, and the United States of America, among others.
The alphabet of the English language consisted of 52 symbols representing 26 letters.
The English alphabet was also present in nurseries to help children learn them along side other alien alphabets. A nursery aboard the Enterprise-D had the English alphabet on the wall in 2365. (TNG: "The Child")
Starfleet vessels of note, such as the Constitution-class USS Enterprise and the predecessors of the USS Relativity were commemorated by having new ships later named after them and keeping the same registry number, but adding a letter based on the number of ships that have been renamed. The Galaxy-class USS Enterprise, which has the registry number NCC-1701-D, would then be the fifth vessel to bear the name, and referred to as the Enterprise-D.
When the USS Enterprise's autodestruct sequence was activated, Captain Jean-Luc Picard joked wryly that they would probably build yet another Enterprise, "…plenty of letters left in the alphabet." (Star Trek: First Contact)
From 1992 to 1996 Khan Noonien Singh was the absolute ruler of a quarter of Earth's Human population, from the Subcontinent to the Middle East. English was spoken in several of his subject countries, and in others seized by his fellow supermen in 1993. (TOS: "Space Seed")
In 2024 individuals that were submitted to the Sanctuary Districts were given questionnaires and told to answer all of the questions to the best of their ability. They were told that if they could not speak English an interpreter would be provided, and if they could not read, the questions would be given to them verbally. (DS9: "Past Tense, Part I")
On the maiden mission of the UESPA/Starfleet Enterprise NX-01, when linguist Hoshi Sato was discomforted by the sequencing of the deflector at warp 4.4, she snapped at T'Pol "ponfo mirann!" (Vulcan for "go to hell!"); T'Pol replied coldly, "I was instructed to speak English on this voyage and I'd appreciate it if you'd respect that." (ENT: "Broken Bow")
In early 2152, welcoming Vulcan ambassador V'Lar aboard Enterprise, T'Pol addressed her in Vulcan; V'Lar insisted that they not speak this language, as she wanted the opportunity to practice her English. (ENT: "Fallen Hero")
Later yet that year, Jonathan Archer encountered a wraith that appeared to him in the form of a Human female. This female spoke to Archer, much to his surprise, as his initial reply to her was a statement of the obvious: "You're speaking English." (ENT: "Rogue Planet")
In 2267, Khan was revived from suspended animation and his first question was in English: "How long?" Waking later in the USS Enterprise's sickbay, he thought he had dreamed of hearing the language. (TOS: "Space Seed")
In 2268 the Enterprise encountered a Melkotian buoy which communicated telepathically, everyone on the bridge comprehending the message in her/his native language: Russian for Chekov, Ki-Swahili for Uhura, his own planetary language for Spock, English for Kirk, and certain others. (TOS: "Spectre of the Gun")
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