Failure Consequence Assessment System (FCAS) was a methodology used by the Federation for determining how and why a spacecraft might fail and what the consequences of that failure might be.
Galen Pizzorno, the deputy mission director for the SS Artemis, was trained in this system. (TNG: "The Ensigns of Command")
FCAS was mentioned in the mission summary for
This system has been used by NASA
since the 1960s.