(covers information from several alternate timelines)
This page contains information regarding Star Trek: Discovery, and thus may contain spoilers.
In the 2260s of the alternate reality, information on escort vessels, frigates, cruisers, scout ships, science vessels, survey ships, transport ships, hospital ships, supply ships, mining vessels, carriers, corvettes, diplomatic vessels, support vessels, as well as Starfleet Academy, Starfleet Medical, Starfleet Corps of Engineers, Starfleet Intelligence, Starfleet Operations, Starfleet Tactical, Starfleet Security, Starfleet Administration, Starfleet Science, Starfleet Research, Starfleet Diplomatic Corps, Starfleet Communications, and the M-class planet Altamid were located in the Federation database. (Star Trek Beyond)
As early as the mid-23rd century, the Federation database listed lifeforms and species such as the Zaldans and Zan Periculi. The DNA of the latter was among the species tested for compatibility with tardigrade DNA by Paul Stamets, but it proved incompatible. The Daystrom Institute classified database housed potentially more information on lifeforms than the Federation database. (DIS: "Choose Your Pain")
In 2375, Seven of Nine assumed that Species 8472 had access to a Federation database when the crew of the USS Voyager discovered a replicated Starfleet Academy and Starfleet Headquarters in San Francisco aboard Terrasphere 8 in the Delta Quadrant. Captain Kathryn Janeway later told "Boothby" to check their Federation database to learn that Janeway told the truth when she claimed that the Federation had no knowledge about the realm of Species 8472. (VOY: "In the Flesh")
When Seven of Nine told Commander Chakotay about a possible conspiracy, she mentions that according to the Federation database, the Maquis were victims of several unauthorized Starfleet missions. (VOY: "The Voyager Conspiracy")