The genome of an organism is the complete set of genetic information necessary to encode and control all of the proteins the organism will ever synthesize. It also refers to the actual information-bearing molecule; in the case of Humans, this is DNA. Sexual reproduction involves genetic recombination of information encoded in the male and female genomes. Eugenics and genetic engineering involved directed manipulation of the information encoded in the genome.
One of the issues surrounding World War III was reported to be disputes regarding Human genome enhancement and other forms of genetic engineering. (ENT: "In a Mirror, Darkly, Part II" production art; see this image)
During the Kyrian re-creation of "The Voyager Encounter", the Emergency Medical Android had examined the Kyrian genome and determined they would be vulnerable to any number of biological weapons. (VOY: "Living Witness")