Grammar was a composition of rules in a language including phonology and syntax.

In 2151, Hoshi Sato tried to translate the Axanar language, whose grammar sounded bimodal. (ENT: "Fight or Flight")

In 2152, Sato spoke with Feezal Phlox in the Denobulan language. Feezal told Charles Tucker III, Sato had spoken how attractive she found Tucker, but Sato claimed she was only talking about grammar. (ENT: "Stigma")

In 2267, James T. Kirk explained the universal translator to Zefram Cochrane, stating the device compared the frequency of brain wave patterns, selected universal ideas and concepts inherent to all intelligent life and then provided the necessary grammar. (TOS: "Metamorphosis")

According to Data in 2364, Lore's abilities, including his use of syntax and grammar, suggested he was given Human memories similar to Data's own. (TNG: "Datalore")

In 2368, Data stated that it wasn't possible to translate the Tamarian language just by understanding it's allegorical nature, but not the concrete images. He compared this to knowing the grammar of a language, but none of the vocabulary. (TNG: "Darmok")

In 2370, Deep Space 9's universal translator had difficulty translating the Skrreean language, causing Miles O'Brien to surmise that their syntax and grammatical structure were markedly different from anything in the station's database. (DS9: "Sanctuary")

In 2373, Nog edited Jake Sisko's story Past Prologue, mostly correcting spelling and grammar. (DS9: "The Ascent")

In 2374, Arturis claimed he had only needed to hear a few phrases from Neelix to grasp the Talaxian language's grammar and syntax. (VOY: "Hope and Fear")

In 2377, members of Fantome's species learned to communicate by music, turning it into a language with its own grammar and syntax. (VOY: "The Void")

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