Hemocythemia (or a hemocythemic imbalance) was a medical condition where the osmotic pressure on the cell walls are unstable. Osmotic pressure therapy was the standard means of treatment.

After USS Voyager was duplicated by a subspace divergence field in 2372, Naomi Wildman was born with hemocythemia caused by her fetal transport procedure. Despite The Doctor's best efforts, the child eventually succumbed to the condition due to equipment failure, resulting from damage caused by proton bursts from the other Voyager. On the other Voyager, The Doctor successfully corrected the condition. (VOY: "Deadlock")

The term was likely derived from hypocythemia, a condition in which the patient has an abnormally low number of red and white blood cells. Hypo is a Greek prefix meaning "under", while hemo means "blood". The name is thus intentionally ambiguous, as cyto means "cell" and emia means a condition relating to blood.
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