Information is data that often answers a question
The computers of Starfleet and Federation ships contained vast data banks of all information known to Starfleet.
LCARS is the interface of Federation starships that controls the computer and information access
The Federation Library was used for barter for spatial trajector technology [Prime Factors]
Memory Alpha was planet that housed the Federation library
Books were filled with information
Books were also found instead of electronic storage [Shockwave part 2]
The Borg sorted information and decided what information to implant within each drone (a specific 7 of 9 quote but i don't remember the episode)
Information was collected as sensor readings by starships and tricorders and other scanners.