Multiple realities
(covers information from several alternate timelines)

Sir Isaac Newton was a noted Human scientist from Earth. In the 17th century, he invented calculus as well as Newtonian physics, which became the foundation of all physics that followed. Newton at one point held the Lucasian Chair of mathematics at Cambridge University. (TNG: "All Good Things...")

In his lifetime, Newton once encountered the man later known as Quinn. Newton was sitting under a tree one day when an apple fell on his head, causing him to think about the laws of gravity. As it happened, Quinn had jostled the tree when he got up to leave, just before the apple fell. As a result, a new era in Human science was born. It was later revealed by Q that if it wasn't for Quinn, then Newton would have died in a Liverpool debtor's prison as a suspect in several prostitute murders. (VOY: "Death Wish")

He was one of six Human astronomers honored with a monument located in front of the Griffith Observatory in the 20th century, the others being Hipparchus, Nicolaus Copernicus, Galileo Galilei, Johannes Kepler, and William Herschel. (VOY: "Future's End")

After hearing that Dixon Hill had struck Felix Leech, Cyrus Redblock referred to a "Newtonian truism", otherwise known as Newton's 3rd law of motion. Redblock told him that "For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction," moments before Redblock allowed Leech to strike Hill with the butt of his gun. (TNG: "The Big Goodbye")

In 2153, when Enterprise NX-01 encountered spatial anomalies in the Delphic Expanse which locally changed the laws of physics, Chief Engineer Tucker asked himself, "Where is Isaac Newton, when you need him?" (ENT: "Anomaly")

When Arev in 2154 asked Captain Jonathan Archer what was Kiri-kin-tha's first law of metaphysics, Archer responded that he only knew Newton's first law of motion but imagined they could be the same. (ENT: "The Forge")

In 2285, David Marcus believed that if Project Genesis had worked, his mother, Carol Marcus, would be remembered in the same breath as Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein, and Surak. (Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan)

In 2369, Lieutenant Commander Data created a holodeck version of Sir Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking in order to watch how three of the greatest Human scientists would interact during a game of poker. Data's observations were "most illuminating." He inadvertently offended Newton by telling him that the story of the apple falling on his head was generally believed to be apocryphal. (TNG: "Descent")

In 2372, on stardate 49301.2, Q plucked Newton from his own time to testify at Janeway's hearing about Quinn. Newton did not remember the visit after transported back. (VOY: "Death Wish")

Newton was played by John Neville in "Descent" and Peter Dennis in "Death Wish".
According to the Star Trek Encyclopedia (4th ed., vol. 2, p. 80), the birth and death years of Sir Newton were 1642 and 1727, respectively. The latter number appeared in the registry of the USS Newton.

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