A jackal was a type of carnivore native to Earth, closely related to dogs and wolves.
In 2367, Q congratulated Sir Guy of Gisbourne for "snar[ing] the jackal", i.e. Robin Hood (Jean Luc Picard). (TNG: "Qpid")
In 2374, Romulan Senator Letant called General Martok a "Klingon jackal", to which Martok angrily retorted that "this jackal has more courage than the entire Romulan Senate". (DS9: "Tears of the Prophets")
Damar called Weyoun a "Vorta jackal" after the Vorta announced the Dominion had destroyed Lakarian City. (DS9: "What You Leave Behind")
When USS Voyager was being hunted by Hazari bounty hunters in 2375, Captain Kathryn Janeway likened them to circling jackals. (VOY: "Think Tank")