In the 22nd century, Jupiter Station served as a maintenance and repair facility for Starfleet vessels, as well as a supply stop for cargo ships and a training facility for the Military Assault Command Operations.
Prior to setting out on its mission in 2151, the cargo freighter ECS Fortunate stopped at Jupiter Station to take on cargo, where the cargo handlers failed to properly balance the load in one of the Fortunate's cargo modules. This caused a vibration in the module, which was eventually corrected when the crew redistributed the cargo. (ENT: "Fortunate Son")
Later that year, in the face of constant attack by an unknown species, Captain Archer decided to reverse course and take Enterprise NX-01 back to Jupiter Station, where the armory team could install state-of-the-art phase cannons, with which Enterprise could better defend itself. Feeling a sense of personal pride in the project, however, Commander Charles Tucker and Lieutenant Malcolm Reed took it upon themselves to complete the modifications, constructing and installing two phase cannons in forty-eight hours, whereas it was estimated that it would take two weeks for the armory team to complete the project. (ENT: "Silent Enemy")
In 2152, MACO Major J. Hayes and his team developed a specialized training system at Jupiter Station, wherein a trainee would utilize a particle rifle in an attempt to hit as many holographic targets as possible in a ten-second period. The MACOs later utilized this program to help train officers on board Enterprise, where they had been assigned to augment the crew in their mission in the Delphic Expanse. (ENT: "Harbinger")
MACO Corporal J. McKenzie did a six-week tour on Jupiter Station, where she gained experience operating in zero gravity conditions when the grav-plating would periodically fail. In 2153, McKenzie related this story to Captain Archer when justifying her presence on an away mission to a derelict alien vessel where the environmental systems were offline. (ENT: "Anomaly")
In the year 2154 of an alternate timeline, where half of Enterprise's warp coils were fused in a ramming maneuver, Trip Tucker estimated their repair to take three weeks if they were at Jupiter Station, but at least six months out in the Delphic Expanse. (ENT: "Twilight")
In his last will and testament, Dr. Lewis Zimmerman requested that, after his death, his holographic assistant Haley be allowed to remain active on the station for as long as the station continued to be operational. (VOY: "Life Line")
Similar to a starship's mess hall, the station had a café. In 2373, that cafe's owner decided to leave, and its ownership was offered to Leeta by the station's commander (at the behest of Dr. Zimmerman) but she refused, deciding to remain on Deep Space 9. (DS9: "Doctor Bashir, I Presume")
Zimmerman offered Leeta a job in the café on the station during his visit to Deep Space 9 in 2373 to interview Julian Bashir for the template of Long-term Medical Holographic program. (DS9: "Doctor Bashir, I Presume")
The Jupiter Station studio model was designed by Rick Sternbach. Sternbach drew inspiration from the Spacedock model as well as a painting he had done for Captain Jean-Luc Picard's quarters. Sternbach has suggested the saucers may be recycled from decommissioned vessels, perhaps Ambassador-class or similar. Sternbach also speculated that the dual extensions at the bottom of the station provided power to the station.