The Kaelons practiced ritual suicide at the age of 60 in a ceremony referred to as the Resolution. The practice was strictly enforced through social taboo, and any Kaelons who dared refuse Resolution risked ostracism, not only for themselves but all their family members as well.
Sometime between the 4th century and the 9th century, the Kaelons typically attempted to care for their elderly by housing them in deathwatch facilities. Severe overcrowding led to unfavorable conditions and it was decided that ritual suicide would alleviate stress but also present an opportunity to celebrate the lives of the individuals when they were not burdened by the effects of old age. They called the event the Resolution, and it would become a critical part of their society.
In the 24th century, the Science Ministry discovered that their sun was dying and would destroy or sterilize Kaelon II by the 2390s. They dedicated a team to try to revitalize it. The scientist Doctor Timicin was the leading specialist in this effort, spending forty years designing a torpedo which would appropriately re-stimulate the sun. They still needed help, however, and, because time was running out, they turned to the United Federation of Planets in 2364. For the next three years, the Federation located a suitable test system for Timicin's method. The USS Enterprise-D came in 2367 to assist in the experiment. Though there were early successes, the experiment was not fully successful. Timicin returned home to undergo his Resolution. Because he wanted to continue his work, he was influenced to seek asylum on the Enterprise. Almost causing a diplomatic incident, he realized that he could be doing more damage and ultimately decided to return home. (TNG: "Half a Life")
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According to an internal reference document, listing all the aliens seen in Star Trek: The Next Generation, which was circulated around the time of the production of TNG Season 5, this species was identified as "Kaelonians". They were further given the description of "a humanoid race, ornately painting the rear neck from ear to ear, the sides of their foreheads and their hands. Betazed variety."