This page contains information regarding Star Trek: Discovery, and thus may contain spoilers.
"Oh, in many ways, it is. We live in harmony with each other, in a world without hunger or poverty. The only violence we know is the culling, which Kelpiens have been misled to accept as a mercy by the Ba'ul."
Kaminar was a ringed class M planet, the fourth planet located in the Kaminar system. It was home to two sapient species – the warp-capable Ba'ul and the pre-warp Kelpiens. (ST: "The Brightest Star"; DIS: "An Obol for Charon")
In the first century of the 1st millennium BC, Kaminar was sparsely populated. The planet's population was divided into three groups: the Ba'ul, the pre-vahar'ai Kelpiens, and the post-vahar'ai Kelpiens. The post-vahar'ai Kelpiens were the main predatory species on the planet, preying on the Ba'ul. Within eighty years, the pre-vahar'ai Kelpiens had either evolved into being post-vahar'ai Kelpiens or had died out. Starting in the first century AD, the Ba'ul were being driven to near extinction by the post-vahar'ai Kelpiens. Then, there was a shift, wherein the Ba'ul population rebounded, with the post-vahar'ai Kelpiens dying out.
At some point, there was a resurrection of the pre-vahar'ai Kelpiens. This reborn species had the potential of becoming post-vahar'ai Kelpiens. Their numbers started to increase, yet they were always smaller in number than the Ba'ul. These events were recorded by the alien lifeform known to the Federation as the Sphere. Data from these recordings was later used in the creation of the Kaminar population history by the USS Discovery crew in 2257. (DIS: "The Sound of Thunder")
At some point between the 23rd century and the events of "The Burn", Kaminar joined the Federation. As of the late 32nd century, Kaminar was too far out of range to be considered an active member of the reduced United Federation of Planets, but was reportedly unharmed and `status quo` (DIS: "Die Trying")
By the 23rd century, the Ba'ul were a technologically advanced species who required the pre-warp Kelpiens to ritualistically sacrifice themselves to their ships. (DIS: "The Vulcan Hello"; ST: "The Brightest Star")
In 3189, the Emerald Chain engaged in military exercises near Kaminar, prompting Fleet Admiral Charles Vance to dispatch part of the Federation fleet to protect the planet. Vance speculated that Osyraa was threatening Kaminar in a ploy to draw out the USS Discovery. (DIS: "Su'Kal")
Flora and fauna
Lifeforms on the planet included flying animals. Animal sounds could be heard constantly. The Kelpiens harvested a kelp-like aquatic plant, as well as flowers, including fredalias. (ST: "The Brightest Star")
The Pocket DIS novel Desperate Hours calls Saru's homeworld "Kelpia". This was later contradicted by another Discovery novel entitled Fear Itself, which first established the planet's name as Kaminar months before the release of "The Brightest Star".