(covers information from several alternate timelines)
The Klingon disruptor was the standard hand-held disruptor weapon used by Klingons. With variations of the weapon existing throughout the 22nd, 23rd, and 24th centuries, they were the standard issue alternative to the Klingon disruptor rifle.
In the Broken Bow Incident of 2151, the Klingon courier Klaang used his disruptor in Broken Bow, Oklahoma, on Earth. In that case, Klaang's disruptor was utilized to destroy a corn silo housing two Suliban agents. (ENT: "Broken Bow")
In 2364, two Klingon renegades imprisoned aboard the USS Enterprise-D assembled a two-pronged, boxy disruptor from elements hidden in their clothing and used it to disable the force field and security personnel. (TNG: "Heart of Glory")
In 2365 and 2366, Klingon officers such as Kargan, Klag, K'Ehleyr, and Kurn carried a distinct variation of disruptor featuring a brown handle, a long black barrel, and an extended silver muzzle. (TNG: "A Matter Of Honor", "The Emissary", "Sins of the Father")
Another style of Klingon disruptor could not only be used to fire at a target, but was also equipped with a double-blade on the front of the barrel and a spiked bottom edge of the handle. (Star Trek Into Darkness, LD: "Envoys")
In 2259 of the alternate reality, Klingon disruptors of this type were used in a battle between a Klingon patrol, an away party from the USS Enterprise and Khan Noonien Singh, a conflict which took place in the Ketha Province on Qo'noS. (Star Trek Into Darkness)
- VOY: "Endgame"
Klingon disruptors were designed by Matt Jefferies for Star Trek: The Original Series. Alan Sims, who worked as property master on Star Trek: The Next Generation and Star Trek: Voyager, credited Jefferies with even the look of the Klingon disruptors in TNG. (Star Trek: Aliens & Artifacts, p. 106)
From the time the disruptors were redesigned for the Star Trek films until their reappearance in Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country, the muzzle of each Klingon disruptor was cut off, so the weapons could fit inside their holsters. Hence, no instances of a Klingon disruptor being drawn from its holster were directly shown in the first five movies. However, in Star Trek III: The Search for Spock, although Kruge and another Klingon did draw their disruptors with the uniquely wide muzzles, the views of their holsters were hidden. When Director Nicholas Meyer chose to show scenes of Klingons drawing their disruptors in Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country, the prop makers had to account for this. "We had to cut the front of the existing pistols and redesign the front muzzle area," remembered Greg Jein. (The Making of the Trek Films, UK 3rd ed., p. 129)
A Klingon disruptor seen in Star Trek: Enterprise was sold off on the It's A Wrap! sale and auction on eBay.  Klaang's Klingon disruptor from the pilot episode was also sold and is made from molded foam rubber, painted brown with faux metal accents. It measures 16 × 8 × 3 inches. 
The heavily bladed style of Klingon disruptor that first appeared in Star Trek Into Darkness was designed with the notion of reflecting the barbarism of the Klingons in their props. Prop master Andrew Siegel said of the spiked handle, "You can use it to bash someone's head in if you so desire." (Star Trek Magazine issue 173, p. 79)