Multiple realities(covers information from several alternate timelines)
The lung was an organ of respiration. The walls of the lungs had capillaries through which blood circulated, allowing for gas exchange; in most humanoids this involved the uptake of oxygen.
A diagram of the Human torso depicting the location of the lungs including the bronchial tubes was stored in the USS Enterprise's library computer database. This database was accessed by the Talosians in 2254. (TOS: "The Cage")
The Takarans had primary lungs in the parasternal and auxiliary lungs in the epigastric. (TNG: "Suspicions")
The Ferengi had upper and lower lungs. (DS9: "Bar Association")
Lurians had at least four lungs. (DS9: "The Sound of Her Voice")
Klingons had three lungs due to brak'lul. It is believed that the third lung gave warriors extra stamina on the battlefield. (VOY: "Lineage")
Suliban lungs normally had three bronchial lobes, however, the genetically altered Cabal soldiers had five. They also had alveoli clusters, which had been modified to process different kinds of atmosphere. (ENT: "Broken Bow")
Fantome's people had a large lung capacity which allowed them to survive in an oxygen-less atmosphere for an extended period of time. (VOY: "The Void")
The Augments during the Eugenics Wars had lung efficiency that was 50% better than that of a normal Human. (TOS: "Space Seed")
In 2268, James T. Kirk was left with a punctured lung following a knife attack by Thelev. (TOS: "Journey to Babel")
Later that year, while occupying Kirk's body, Sargon experienced exhilaration at filling his lungs with air. (TOS: "Return to Tomorrow")
In 2365, Katherine Pulaski determined that the lungs, among other organs, of the USS Lantree crew showed signs that they had died of old age. (TNG: "Unnatural Selection")
In 2371, both of Neelix's lungs were removed by a group of Vidiians. Unable to create artificial lungs, The Doctor had to use a blood-gas infuser, a cytoplasmic stimulator, and an isotropic restraint in combination with his newly-created holographic organ replacement in order to keep Neelix alive. Later, one of Kes' Ocampan lungs was altered and transplanted into Neelix by the Vidiians. (VOY: "Phage")
In "The Haunting of Deck Twelve", Tuvok says to Neelix: "
Imagine your lungs filling with oxygen." Tuvok either did not recall that Neelix only had one lung, or he again had two lungs.
In 2372, the alveoli in Tom Paris' lungs began to mutate after he broke the transwarp threshold. (VOY: "Threshold")
Soon after, Quark's lower lung was punctured in a brutal assault by a pair of Nausicaans. (DS9: "Bar Association")
Captain Ramirez' lung was punctured during a Cardassian attack on the USS Valiant shortly after the beginning of the Dominion War. (DS9: "Valiant")
In an alternate timeline experienced by the Voyager crew in 2374, The Doctor instructed Tom Paris to treat a crewmember with damaged lung tissue with inaprovaline. Eighty-six days later, Captain Kathryn Janeway ordered The Doctor to treat her with trioxin after the alveoli in her lungs were chemically burned. (VOY: "Year of Hell", "Year of Hell, Part II")
During the Hirogen's takeover of the USS Voyager in 2374, Seven of Nine received a punctured lung in a holodeck recreation of World War II. Later, another crewmember also suffered a punctured lung. (VOY: "The Killing Game", "The Killing Game, Part II")
In 2376, a comatose B'Elanna Torres' lungs took in just enough oxygen to keep her brain from necrotizing. (VOY: "Barge of the Dead")