Malcor III was the inhabited third planet in its star system. The planet had a northern and southern continent, and its day lasted twenty-nine hours. The nearest star system to Malcor III was the Garth system. Located over two thousand light years from Earth, this was the homeworld for the Malcorians, a humanoid species. The planet was headed by a chancellor.

By 2367, the United Federation of Planets had had observers on the planet in preparation for first contact. A mishap occurred when William T. Riker, supporting the effort, became injured and was revealed as an alien. First contact was made in secret with Avel Durken, the planet's chancellor at this time. Durken asked the Federation to wait for formal first contact until their species was ready to break the warp barrier, so the USS Enterprise-D took their observers and left with their report. (TNG: "First Contact")

In the The Nitpicker's Guide for Next Generation Trekkers Volume II (p. 278), author Phil Farrand stated that the planet was named after fan Karen P. Malcor.
According to Star Trek: Star Charts (p. 47) and Stellar Cartography: The Starfleet Reference Library ("Federation Historical Highlights, 2161-2385"), the Malcor (Mu Ceti) system was located in the Alpha Quadrant. This was a binary system with a pair of F-class stars. In the history of this system, the Niburon colonies were founded here and, in the former reference work, it was the site of a battle prior to 2378. In the late 24th century, it was an independent system.
The Star Trek Encyclopedia (4th ed., vol. 2, p. 13) classified Malcor III as a class M planet.

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