In law, malpractice is a form of negligence where a professional's actions fail to follow the generally accepted standards of the profession. The term is used in the medical profession to refer to the actions of Doctors in treating medical conditions.
One who feels as if they are a victim of malpractice can take legal action against the person responsible and attempt to recover money or other damages from that person.
Doctor Arthur Coleman was removed from the starship posting he held prior to the Camus II expedition after committing "flagrant medical blunders", as well as administrative incompetence, leading Dr. Leonard McCoy to question "James T. Kirk"'s 2269 assignment of Coleman to the treatment of "Janice Lester", rather than McCoy. (TOS: "Turnabout Intruder")
In 2372, Quark believed himself to be a victim of malpractice after being informed by his doctor, Orpax, that he did not have Dorek Syndrome as he originally thought. Quark was overjoyed at the thought of being able to sue Orpax for malpractice, although the revocation of his Ferengi business license may have affected his plans. (DS9: "Body Parts")