(covers information from several alternate timelines)
The McKinley Station, or Earth Station McKinley, was a Federation spacedock type that was in service with Starfleet in the late 24th century. This docking facility was located in Earth's orbit, and was designed for starship construction, refitting and maintenance layovers. (TNG: "Family", "All Good Things..."; VOY: "The Swarm")
The USS Enterprise-D was transferred to this station from the Utopia Planitia Fleet Yards shortly after its launch in 2364, before it departed for Farpoint Station. Captain Jean-Luc Picard took command of the ship while it was docked at the station. In the anti-time past timeline, Picard called for a red alert while at McKinley Station. (TNG: "All Good Things...")
In 2367, the Enterprise-D underwent a major refit at this station in order to repair damage suffered following the Borg incursion. The refit was estimated to last six weeks. (TNG: "The Best of Both Worlds, Part II") Several systems were upgraded, including the ship's phasers (TNG: "Family") and warp core, which received a new dilithium chamber hatch. An undetected defect in the hatch caused an explosion later that year, initially blamed on joint Romulan/Klingon sabotage. (TNG: "The Drumhead")
In 2373, when The Doctor was suffering from a level 4 memory fragmentation, the recreation of Doctor Lewis Zimmerman in Jupiter Station Diagnostic Program Alpha-11 suggested an expansion of The Doctor's memory circuits at this station. This, however, was not possible to Voyager's being stranded in the Delta Quadrant. (VOY: "The Swarm")
In the anti-time future, the USS Pasteur was due to dock at Earth Station McKinley upon arrival at Earth. However, the rendezvous was delayed when Captain Beverly Picard decided to investigate Jean-Luc Picard's claims of a temporal anomaly in the Devron system. (TNG: "All Good Things...")
The same basic drydock design was also employed at Starbase 234, as seen in TNG: "Redemption", and Utopia Planitia Fleet Yards, as seen in VOY: "Relativity". It was not clear why McKinley Station looked much farther from Earth in "Author, Author" than it did in "Family".