Mother Goose was a collection of children's stories and nursery rhymes popular on Earth.
In 2366, Commander William T. Riker referred to Manua Apgar who was living isolated with her husband, Tanugan scientist Doctor Nel Apgar on the Tanuga IV science station as "a princess in a very high tower.'" (TNG: "A Matter of Perspective")
In 2371, Doctor Julian Bashir told Elim Garak the Mother Goose tale "The Boy Who Cried Wolf". (DS9: "Improbable Cause")
In 2376, Neelix described a collection of old Talaxian tales as "not exactly Mother Goose" when looking for examples of the word vaadwaur. (VOY: "Dragon's Teeth")
Neelix thought Mother Goose tales could frighten children with their ogres and child-eating monsters. (VOY: "The Haunting of Deck Twelve")