(covers information from several alternate timelines)
Multiplication was a function of arithmetic in which a number was increased. It was denoted by the word "times" or the symbol "x".
Bethany, an inhabitant of the Skagaran colony located in the Delphic Expanse, worked with the Skagaran children there with their multiplication tables. In going over one problem with her student, Yral, they worked out 9 x 12 together, when she reminded him "don't forget to carry the one;" allowing him to come to the solution of 9 x 12 = 108. After completing the problem, she told him that he was "doing very well", and that "[t]omorrow night we'll start with something a little more challenging: long division." (ENT: "North Star")
Captain Ronald Tracey demonstrated to James T. Kirk how old the Yang Wu was, noting that "[t]heir Year of the Red Bird comes once every 11 years, which he's seen forty two times. Multiply it. Wu is 462 years old." (TOS: "The Omega Directive")
The process of reproduction was a matter of multiplication of units or individuals.
When Phlox was injected with Borg nanoprobes he found that their intramolecular processors appeared to be vulnerable to omicron particles. Prior to exposing himself to that type of radiation, he warned that "if one of the nanoprobes survives, it will start to multiply again." (ENT: "Regeneration")
According to Spock: "A safe tribble would be a contradiction in terms. Tribbles are well known for their proclivities in multiplication." (TAS: "More Tribbles, More Troubles") Odo shared similar sentiments with regards of searching for a specific tribble rigged as a bomb, say that "It's not a question of manpower, it's a question of multiplication." (DS9: "Trials and Tribble-ations")