Neo-Transcendentalism was a philosophical movement on Earth in the early 22nd century, founded by Liam Dieghan. Adherents of the philosophy advocated a return to less technological driven lifestyles with an emphasis on self-reliance and nature.

The SS Mariposa, a colony ship launched from Earth in 2123, carried a group of Neo-Transcendentalists who eventually settled on Bringloid V. (TNG: "Up The Long Ladder")

This general philosophy resonates on into the 23rd century, as seen in the Omicron colony, and in the 24th century, with vibrant followers being Alixus and other influential scientists on Earth. (TOS: "This Side of Paradise", DS9: "Paradise")
Although the episode's writers most likely wanted to refer to Transcendentalism, the form of Neo-Transcendentalism described in "Up The Long Ladder" should not necessarily be confused with the Neo-Transcendentalist movements of the real-world 20th century.