Neo-Trotskyism was a social philosophy on Earth in the early 21st century, particularly in France. It originated from the philosophy of Russian Bolshevik revolutionary Leon Trotsky.

In the early 2020s France was gripped by student protests and waves of violent civil unrest, making it an undesirable tourist destination for Earth's elite. Europe in general was remarked to be "falling apart" at this time. The Gaullists had failed to deal with widespread student protests and by the year 2024 were replaced by Neo-Trotskyists, but they were unsuccessful in subduing the riots as well. Many people in the United States of America believed such social ills were confined to Europe, but they were proved wrong shortly thereafter by the Bell Riots. (DS9: "Past Tense, Part I")

The name of this organization seems to suggest a connection to Trotskyism or real-world Neo-Trotskyism. The Star Trek Encyclopedia (4th ed., vol. 1, p. 300) mentions that the Neo-Trotskyists were the dominant party of the French National Assembly.