Neural energy (or neurogenic energy) is the energy contained within a lifeform's nervous system.

During operation of a transporter, an individual's neural energy is stored within the transporter buffer. The energy pattern occupies a massive amount of computer memory and so cannot be stored for long. Further, neural energy must be stored at the quantum level, so not all computer systems could store it. (DS9: "Our Man Bashir")

After being transported to 1893 San Francisco, California, Dr. Beverly Crusher determined that several apparent cholera victims were in fact killed when their neural energy had been drained by the Devidians. (TNG: "Time's Arrow, Part II")

In 2372, a transporter accident forced the Deep Space 9 computer to preserve Benjamin Sisko, Jadzia Dax, Kira Nerys, Miles O'Brien, and Worf's neural energy. However, Michael Eddington discovered that there was insufficient memory on the entire station to store the neural energy of all the officers. Faced with the prospect of losing them, he ordered the computer to wipe all data necessary in order to save the energy signatures before the buffer lost coherence. He found the physical patterns in the holosuite, but it could only handle the physical pattern, not the neural energy. (DS9: "Our Man Bashir")

In 2373, Odo, Dax, Sisko, and Garak experienced a plasma storm in a runabout, which affected Odo's sense of connecting to the Great Link. With only humanoids around him, this resulted in a shared telepathic experience, increasing their neural energy. (DS9: "Things Past")

When Kes returned to USS Voyager in 2376, she gave off high levels of neurogenic energy. (VOY: "Fury")

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