Neurology or neurological medicine, is the scientific study of the nervous system with regards to its structure, functions, as well as diagnosis and treatment of any abnormalities. Neurology is studied by a specialized physician known as a neurologist.

Vulcan neurology is exceptionally resilient, much more so than a Humans. While discussing the removal of Surak's katra from Jonathan Archer, T'Pau and T'Les spoke of the fal-tor-pan, noting the potential risk in the procedure which may cause severe shock to Archer's nervous system, resulting in death. (ENT: "Awakening")

Following the death of Montgomery Scott, caused by Nomad, Leonard McCoy issued a number of tapes on Scotty's internal structure, including "tapes on general anatomy, the central nervous system, and then one on the physiological structure of the brain." McCoy also suggested they give Nomad all the neurological studies we have, as well as tracings of Scotty's hyperencephalogram. (TOS: "The Changeling")

After mind melding with V'ger, Spock showed indications of neurological trauma in his pons area at spinal nerve fiber connection. (Star Trek: The Motion Picture)

In 2368, Doctor Toby Russell was surprised by the primitive nature of Klingon neurological medicine, one example being the policy of allowing patients with similar afflictions to Worf's die rather than attempt to heal them. (TNG: "Ethics")

Neurological scans can reveal memory activity, including suppression, through the appearance of engramatic activity. (VOY: "Retrospect") After being falsely convicted of murder on Banea, in 2371, Tom Paris' punishment involved reliving the murder through the victim's eyes. This was accomplished by means of a neural implant that integrated the victim's engrams into the murdered. Because Tom was a Human, it was found that the Banean engrams that were implanted in his memory were not fully compatible with his alien neurology. As a result he lost consciousness. (VOY: "Ex Post Facto")

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