Nitrium was a metallic element or alloy which was widely used in the construction of Federation starships. It could be found in asteroids such as those in the Pelloris Field. Nitrium was present in most ship's systems, notably on the Galaxy-class of vessels where the substance was present in life support systems, computers, and engines.

Nitrium was also present in large amounts in dilithium chambers. The presence of nitrium in these critical areas created a vulnerability for the USS Enterprise-D in 2368 when it encountered a nitrium parasite that began to metabolize the nitrium on board and threatened to cripple the ship. (TNG: "Cost of Living")

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