This ship was seen in the opening titles of Star Trek: Enterprise as Linda Park's credit plays, right after the International Space Station (a 1990s concept), and prior to a scene of the Phoenix in 2063.
While no name or agency's logo were seen on the ship, the number follows the registry system used during the 1981 to 2011 NASA space shuttle missions on the space shuttle orbiter craft used by the United States of America, a system that began with Challenger OV-099 and Enterprise OV-101. The Star Trek Encyclopedia (4th ed., vol. 2, p. 117) stated that "the designation [...] was intended to suggest that it was a descendant of the real-life NASA Space Shuttle Enterprise, which had the registry number OV-101." It additionally stated that the OV-165 "employed a lifting-body design".
A StarTrek.com feature on the sequence described it as a "hypersonic spaceplane".
The reference book Star Trek Spaceflight Chronology, published in 1979, featured a similarly shaped craft on page 40. It was called the Space Ferry, the successor of the space shuttle from 2003 to 2015. It was equipped with an aerospike engine and did not require booster rockets for lift-off.