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The USS Odyssey, a Galaxy-class starship using its main phaser array on a Dominion Jem'Hadar attack vessel

A phaser array was a weapon comprised of a linear arrangement of numerous phaser emitters located in strategic areas of a starship, space station, or other vessel. In the 23rd century, phaser arrays had smaller numbers of emitters, and were commonly referred to as phaser banks often like gun turrets on 20th century warships (TOS: "The Corbomite Maneuver", "Balance of Terror") By the 24th century, Starfleet began to fit its vessels and facilities with phaser arrays that spanned across the ship's hull and contained much larger numbers of emitters, these were often called "Phaser strips." The arrays aboard a Galaxy-class starship could channel vast energy in a short time frame, capable of cutting through a mile of solid granite in seconds. (citation needededit)

During the firing sequence of some ship-mounted arrays, phaser energies would travel along the emitter strip and converge at the best position for targeting. (Star Trek: The Next Generation)

Galaxy-class ships, in the docked configuration, generally exhibited eleven phaser arrays. Two large arrays encircled the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the command module. The other nine arrays were on the engineering module: two upper aft arrays inward of the saucer impulse engines, one on the ventral surface of the engineering section, two lateral arrays on the warp nacelle pylons, and two aft arrays each on the dorsal and ventral pylon surfaces proximate to the aft photon torpedo launcher. An additional array, on the "cobra head" of the engineering module, was only exposed and usable when the ship was separated into its two components. (Star Trek: The Next Generation)

This information, which supports twelve phaser arrays, is from visual inspection of Galaxy-class ships and is further supported by the Star Trek: The Next Generation Technical Manual. Curiously, in TNG: "Conundrum", Worf stated that the Galaxy-class Enterprise-D only had ten "phaser banks."

Intrepid-class vessels were equipped with thirteen phaser arrays plus at least four separate phaser banks. On the primary hull, there were two main arrays (one starboard, one port) on each of the dorsal and ventral surfaces, and two smaller aft arrays (also one starboard and one port) on each surface. One behind the bridge. The other five arrays were on the engineering section: one on the ventral surface, two lateral ventral arrays on the warp nacelle pylons, and two aft arrays on the underside of the lateral pylon. (Star Trek: Voyager; VOY: "Resolutions") Two separate phaser banks in the aft torpedo launchers (VOY: "Dragon's Teeth"), one aft phaser bank was located behind the second tractor beam emitter, in the aft section of Deck 14 (VOY: "Think Tank"), and an embedded emitter was located on the ventral surface of the ships right nacelle. (VOY: "Unimatrix Zero")

The later Sovereign-class starships originally had twelve arrays, including seven dorsal arrays and five ventral arrays. (Star Trek: First Contact) By 2379, four additional arrays were added to the nacelle pylons of the Sovereign-class USS Enterprise-E, bringing the total complement of arrays to sixteen. (Star Trek Nemesis)

In 2371, Korinas asked Benjamin Sisko for information on the USS Defiant's phaser array. (DS9: "Defiant") In the early months of the Dominion War, the crew of the Defiant placed depleted phaser array power cells in the mess hall as a sign they would not stop fighting. (DS9: "Behind the Lines")

Cardassian Galor-class vessels were equipped with multiple phaser arrays which could cover 360 degrees. These were used during Operation Return primarily to destroy Federation attack fighters. (DS9: "Sacrifice of Angels")

According to Star Trek: The Next Generation Technical Manual, the Galaxy-class arrays were designated Type-X. however uses a picture of the Enterprise-D firing its phaser array to depict the phaser type-8. [1] The Sovereign-class arrays were designated Type-XII according to the Star Trek: Starship Spotter.

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