(covers information from several alternate timelines)
The president of the United Federation of Planets (informally, the Federation president or the president of the Federation) was the elected head of state and head of government of the United Federation of Planets. (Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home; Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country; DS9: "Homefront", "Paradise Lost")
The Federation president was the chief executive officer of the Federation. The president was responsible for the day-to-day operation of the government, setting and coordinating foreign policy, and dealing with resource distribution issues. (Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country; DS9: "Homefront") The Federation president was also the commander-in-chief of all Starfleet forces. (DS9: "Paradise Lost") They had the power to pardon criminals. (DIS: "Will You Take My Hand?") The president received foreign ambassadors and had the authority to control Starfleet deployments and to declare martial law on Federation member worlds. (Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country; DS9: "Homefront") In addition, the president could preside over special courts martial in which the Federation Council served as the judging body. (Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home) If the president was absent, the vice president assumed the powers of the president. (DIS: "The Galactic Barrier")
While in the mirror universe, after seeing that mirror Worf was the regent of the Klingon-Cardassian Alliance, Rom was so taken aback he exclaimed "Who's the president of the Federation, Gul Dukat!?" (DS9: "The Emperor's New Cloak")
Unnamed President, c. 2257
In 2257, the Federation president personally pardoned Michael Burnham for her mutiny aboard the USS Shenzhou at the Battle of the Binary Stars, in recognition for her subsequent service aboard the USS Discovery and her role in ending the Federation-Klingon War. (DIS: "Will You Take My Hand?")
Human President, c. 2286
That year, he presided over the council's deliberations concerning the actions of Federation Starfleet Admiral James T. Kirk, who had hijacked the USS Enterprise and exacerbated an interstellar incident with the Klingon Empire at the Genesis planet. Ultimately, the council decided to charge Kirk with nine violations of Starfleet regulations.
When the Whale Probe approached Earth, transmitting its destructive message into the planet's atmosphere, the president decided to broadcast a planetary distress signal to warn all ships to stay away from Earth.
Following the Whale Probe incident (in which Kirk and his crew saved the planet), the president and the council agreed to drop all but one of the charges against the Enterprise crew, the remaining charge of disobeying orders simply resulting in Kirk being demoted to captain – as he wanted all along – in gratitude for their service to Earth and the Federation. (Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home)
Efrosian President, c. 2293
In 2293, the president, an Efrosian, opened negotiations with Klingon chancellor Gorkon, following the destruction of the Klingon moon Praxis. The president was to meet Gorkon on Earth for a peace conference, but Gorkon was assassinated en route by a pair of rogue Starfleet non-commissioned officers. USS Enterprise-A Captain Kirk and Doctor Leonard McCoy were arrested by the Klingons under the rules of interstellar law and charged with Gorkon's assassination; when the Klingon ambassador to the Federation, defended his government's actions and demanded that Kirk and McCoy stand trial, the president conceded, "This president is not above the law."
A short time later, Starfleet Colonel West proposed a military offensive (code-named Operation Retrieve) aimed at invading Klingon space and rescuing the "hostages", Kirk and McCoy. Although West was confident that the prisoners could be retrieved, the president rejected his plan because of the probability that such an act would cause a full-scale war.
At the Khitomer Conference, the president was targeted for assassination by the Starfleet and Klingon conspirators, but the plot was foiled by the crew of the Enterprise with assistance by the crew of the USS Excelsior. (Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country)
Jaresh-Inyo, c. 2372
In 2372, the office was held by Jaresh-Inyo, a Grazerite. His presidency was marked by a number of troubling foreign and domestic policy developments, including the dissolution of the Khitomer Accords and an undeclared war with the Klingon Empire in 2372, increasing tensions with the Dominion, and the rise of the Maquis.
In 2372, fears of Changeling infiltration of the Federation government reached a high point when Dominion agents were discovered to have detonated a bomb at a diplomatic conference between the Federation and the Romulan Star Empire in Antwerp. Starfleet Admiral and Chief of Starfleet Operations Leyton and Captain Benjamin Sisko advocated increased security on Earth following the bombing, and when the planetary power grid was disabled, Inyo declared martial law on the capital planet. Later, it was discovered that the grid had been disabled by Leyton's own agents, and that Leyton was leading an attempted military coup d'etat against the Federation civilian government. Leyton's coup was thwarted by Sisko, but as a result of the scandal, Jaresh-Inyo's political career ended. (DS9: "Homefront", "Paradise Lost")
Unnamed President, c. 3189
In 3189, the Federation president ordered Fleet Admiral Charles Vance to conduct negotiations with Minister Osyraa of the Emerald Chain for the release of the USS Discovery and its crew. (DIS: "There Is A Tide...")
Laira Rillak, c. 3190–
|Presidents of the United Federation of Planets|
|Jonathan Archer (2184-2192) • unidentified individual (c. 2257) • Human male (c. 2286) • Efrosian male (c. 2293) • Jaresh-Inyo (c. 2372) • Laira Rillak (c. 3189)|
The seal of the Federation President, described as representing "the Federation's chief executive", was designed by Herman Zimmerman for Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country. (Star Trek Sticker Book, pg. 10)
According to a newspaper clipping created as background material for Star Trek Generations and entitled "It's Federation Day!", the first President of the United Federation of Planets was former United Earth ambassador Thomas Vanderbilt, appointed upon the founding of the Federation in 2161. Ambassador Sarahd was appointed as his Vice-President. This information, however, was not seen on-screen.
Answering questions as to why Jaresh-Inyo put Earth into a state of emergency, Ronald D. Moore stated:
- "We wanted to tell the story of an attempted military coup of the Federation and that meant dealing with the Fed president. However, that meant the troops "in the streets" had to be on Earth and that Earth itself had to be under martial law since the Fed is headquartered on Earth. We discussed having the Prez "federalize" the Earth defense forces or supersede the authority of an indigenous Earth Govt, but the story kept getting too complicated and we didn't want to start mentioning all these other players and organizations that we weren't going to see. So in the end, we skirted the issue of who actually governs Earth. Personally, I think there is an Earth Govt that operates like more powerful versions of States do in the US system, but this is all VERY murky water." (AOL chat, 1997)
During the fifth season of Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, Ron D. Moore in an AOL chat gave a summary of what was going on in the show, ending by joking that Morn had become President of the Federation. (AOL chat, 1997)
The method of electing the President of the United Federation of Planets has never been discussed in Star Trek canon. The Last Unicorn sourcebook for the Federation suggests that the President is elected by members of the Federation Council, similar to a parliamentary government.
The President of the Federation and the duties of the office are the subjects of the novel Articles of the Federation, which tells the story of a year in the life of the newly-elected Federation President in a style similar to that of the television series The West Wing. The novel also names several prior Federation Presidents, including the ones who are canonically "name unknown." It establishes that the office is held in four-year terms (without a two-term limit), similar to the modern American presidency.
The novel A Time for War, A Time for Peace establishes that an individual anonymously submits an application for candidacy to the Federation Council, which reviews each application and certifies that a candidate fills all qualifications for the office. Approved candidates then campaign in a popular election. All Federation citizens within and without UFP territory are allowed to submit their ballots, which are tabulated over the course of a week by two independent auditing firms and by the Federation government before a winner is certified. The Federation News Service commonly projects a winner in the days leading up to Election Day, and has never projected erroneously.
Presidents of the United Federation of Planets depicted in the television series, films, novels, and comics include:
- 2161 – ?: Thomas Vanderbilt (Human male) (Star Trek Generations newspaper clip)
- (Dates not established: mid-22nd century): Haroun al-Rashid (pronounced "Ha-roon Ar-Ra-sheed") (Human male) (Articles of the Federation by Keith R.A. DeCandido)
- (Dates not established: mid-22nd century): Avaranthi sh'Rothress (Andorian shen [female]) (Articles of the Federation by Keith R.A. DeCandido)
- (Dates not established: late 22nd century): T'Maran of Vulcan (Vulcan female) (Articles of the Federation by Keith R.A. DeCandido)
- 2184 – 2192: Jonathan Archer (Human male) (ENT: "In a Mirror, Darkly, Part II")
- (Exact dates not established: early 2230s, two terms): Madza Bral (Trill female) (Articles of the Federation by Keith R.A. DeCandido)
- 2265 – 2268: Kenneth Wescott (Human male) (Errand of Fury, Book I: Seeds of Rage by Kevin Ryan; date of at least one term from Articles of the Federation by Keith R.A. DeCandido)
- 2269 – 2272: Lorne McLaren (Human male) (Star Trek Core Games Book by Last Unicorn Games; date of at least one term from Articles of the Federation by Keith R.A. DeCandido)
- 2285 – 2288: Hiram Roth (Human male) (Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home, dates of at least one term and name from Articles of the Federation by Keith R.A. DeCandido)
- 2289 – 2300: Ra-ghoratreii (Efrosian male) (Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country", dates from Articles of the Federation by Keith R.A. DeCandido, species name from Star Trek production office name for makeup design, character name from novelization of Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country by J.M. Dillard)
- Post 2320 (dates not established): Hikaru Sulu (Human male) (The Return by William Shatner)
- c. 2313 (exact terms not established): Gan Laikan (Human male from Alpha Centauri) (TNG eBook: Slings and Arrows: Enterprises of Great Pitch and Moment)
- 2327: Nyota Uhura (Human female) (TNG book The Autobiography of Jean-Luc Picard by David A. Goodman)
- (Dates not established; during Cardassian first contact): Thelianaresth "Thelian" th'Vorothishria (Andorian thaan [male]) (Enter the Wolves by A.C. Crispin and Howard Weinstein; expanded name from Articles of the Federation by Keith R.A. DeCandido)
- c. 2351 (exact dates not established; during the Cardassian-Federation border wars): T'Pragh of Vulcan (Vulcan female) (Articles of the Federation and A Singular Destiny by Keith R.A. DeCandido)
- 2364 – 2368: Amitra of Pandril (Pandrilite female) (Articles of the Federation by Keith R.A. DeCandido)
- 2369 – 2372: Jaresh-Inyo (Grazerite male) (DS9: "Homefront", "Paradise Lost") (species name from scripts; single term from Articles of the Federation by Keith R.A. DeCandido)
- 2373 – 2379: Min Zife (Bolian male) (A Time to Kill and A Time to Heal by David Mack, also referenced in Articles of the Federation by Keith R.A. DeCandido and Worlds of Star Trek: Deep Space Nine – Unjoined by Andy Mangels & Michael A. Martin.)
- 2379 – 2385 / 2392: Nanietta Bacco (Human female) (A Time for War, A Time for Peace, Articles of the Federation by Keith R.A. DeCandido, Revelation and Dust by David R. George III and STO website: The Path to 2409)
- August – October 2385: Baras Rodirya (President Pro Tempore, Bajoran male, alias "Ishan Anjar") (Revelation and Dust by David R. George III and Peaceable Kingdoms by Dayton Ward)
- October 2385: Sipak (President Pro Tempore, Vulcan male) (Peaceable Kingdoms by Dayton Ward)
- October 2385 – ?: Kellessar zh'Tarash (Andorian zhen [female]) (Peaceable Kingdoms by Dayton Ward)
- 2392 – ?: Aennik Okeg (Saurian male) (STO website: The Path to 2409 and Star Trek Online)