(covers information from several alternate timelines)
A prodigy, boy wonder, whiz kid, wonder child or wunderkind, were terms reserved for young individuals who was smarter than average, perhaps even genius, for their age, or those who achieved early in life.
When it was believed that Enterprise NX-01 was going to be permanently recalled to Earth in 2151, Travis Mayweather and Hoshi Sato began to discuss their future options. When Mayweather asked if Sato thought she was replaced in Brazil, she replied, "Even if they have, they'd take me back. I'm a prodigy, remember?" (ENT: "Shockwave")
During Doctor Richard Daystrom's 2268 mental breakdown, while feeling unappreciated, recalled the "Colleagues laughing behind my back at the boy wonder and becoming famous building on my work." This after creating his greatest achievement at the age of twenty-four. (TOS: "The Ultimate Computer")
Doctor Paul Stubbs referred to himself and to Wesley Crusher as a wunderkind in 2366. Stubbs explained to Crusher, that being one was burden, because one will always be trying to fulfill their potential, and "[y]ou will never come up against a greater adversary than your own potential, my young friend." (TNG: "Evolution")
According to the medical records and psych profile for Tam Elbrun, a Betazoid, he rated "very high" on the ESP scale, to which Doctor Beverly Crusher compared to him being "A sort of prodigy." This was because he was born with this telepathic skills "turned on". (TNG: "Tin Man")