The Qo'noS system was a planetary star system located in the Qo'noS sector in the Beta Quadrant. Qo'noS, the capital planet of the Klingon Empire and homeworld of the Klingons, was located in the system. (Star Trek Into Darkness display graphic ; DIS: "Magic to Make the Sanest Man Go Mad")
According to the display graphic from Star Trek Into Darkness the Qo'noS system was located in the Omega Leonis sector block. Omega Leonis is a real star 112 light years away from Earth. The Qo'noS system was presumably located closer to Earth than that, as the episode ENT: "Two Days and Two Nights" marked the first time a starship from Earth had traveled as far as 90 light years from the Sol system, and Enterprise NX-01 had already visited Qo'noS in the pilot episode of the series.
According to the Starfleet Medical Reference Manual, the Klingon homeworld was the planet "Epsilon Sagittarii B". Epsilon Sagittarii is also a real star located 143 light years away from Earth. (citation needed • edit)
According to Star Trek: Star Charts (pp. 56 & 62) and Stellar Cartography: The Starfleet Reference Library ("Stellar Cartography" p. 30; "Federation Historical Highlights, 2161-2385"), in 2293, the USS Enterprise-A rendezvoused with the Kronos One in the system. According to a map of the Klingon Empire – prepared by the Scribe K'Tark for the Klingon High Council in the Year of Kahless 893 (2266) – Qo'noS was identified as a Klingon system. In 2368, the system was on the front line of the Klingon Civil War. (The Star Trek: Star Charts (p. 56) stated Kling was an alternative name for Qo'noS.)
According to Star Trek Maps (Charts A & C), the system had an orange binary star and five planets. The Klingon homeworld was the second planet in the system.