Rudellian brain fever was an infectious disease that could cause mental problems.

In 2373, Miles O'Brien at first speculated there had been an outbreak of Rudellian brain fever on Bajor, when his wife told him she wasn't Keiko; in fact, however, Keiko's body had been taken over by a Pah-Wraith. (DS9: "The Assignment")

See also

According to Star Trek: Star Charts (p. 46) and Stellar Cartography: The Starfleet Reference Library ("Federation Historical Highlights, 2161-2385"), there was a star system named Rudellia, which might possibly be the system of origin for this plague, in the Alpha Quadrant. The system's primary was a G-class star.
According to the script, Rudellian was pronounced as "roo-DAY-lee-un". [1]

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