A science mission was a type of mission whose purpose was scientific discovery.

In 2269, the USS Enterprise undertook a science mission to determine if the center of the Milky Way Galaxy was still creating new matter. (TAS: "The Magicks of Megas-Tu")

In the 23rd century, a Vulcan science mission traveled to the Hanoli rift, where they detonated a pulse wave torpedo at the coordinates of the tear, causing the Hanoli system and the Vulcans to be destroyed five minutes later. (DS9: "If Wishes Were Horses")

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