Second lieutenant was a military rank. A traditional infantry rank, second lieutenant was the lowest officer grade, subordinate to a first lieutenant. Infantry lieutenants fell below captain, and commanded a platoon, consisting of about thirty troops. In comparison to naval ranking systems, a second lieutenant was equivalent to the grade of ensign or sublieutenant, depending on the specific arrangement.

This rank was used by the United States armed forces and police, represented by a single rectangular gold bar uniform insignia beginning around the 20th century. 2nd lieutenants existed in other Earth nations, such as World War II Germany and Japan. Japanese second lieutenants wore a single star on a red epaulet with one wide center gold braid flanked by thinner braids on either side. In the German Army, this was translated as leutnant, but in the SS, second lieutenants were referred to as an untersturmführer ("junior storm leader"). The collar insignia for this was a black square bordered with white, with three silver pips in a diagonal line.

Nogami, a Japanese Navy officer who wore second lieutenant insignia on his epaulets. was among the Humans captured by the Briori in 1937. (VOY: "The 37's")

In a holodeck simulation of a Nazi campaign in France, a group of Hirogen hunters took the persona of 1940s German officers. The Beta Hirogen, named Turanj, wore an SS uniform displaying the insignia for Untersturmführer. (VOY: "The Killing Game", "The Killing Game, Part II")

Two SS-untersturmführers were part of Vosk and Adolf Hitler's alternate timeline invasion of the USA. (ENT: "Storm Front, Part II")

According to the Star Trek Encyclopedia (4th ed., vol. 2, p. 9), 2nd lieutenant was a rank in the Military Assault Command Operations in the 2150s. The insignia for this rank was on display in a diagram of MACO rank and insignia.

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