(written from a Production point of view)
The Star Fleet Medical Reference Manual is a reference book written from an in-universe perspective, jointly edited by later Star Trek production staffer Geoffrey Mandel and Eileen Palestine and jointly illustrated by later Star Trek production staffers Doug Drexler and Anthony Fredrickson, showcasing various anatomies of species (both humanoid and non-) from the 23rd century, as well as various medical techniques.
Leonard McCoy, MD, is listed as the "Medical Advisor" on the page listing the authors, the illustrators, and the editors.
- 1 Summary
- 2 Background information
A Publication of the Star Fleet Surgeon General.
WARNING: The Surgeon General's medical reference manual is intended as a basic source of medical information for starship crew members, and is not an alternative to treatment by a physician. First aid procedures should be used with caution, and only by trained personnel.
An essay on the "Historical Trends in Medicine" credited to Professor Dr. John Gill, PhD, explains about how surgeons have been on ships created by Humans since the first ships were built, and that how those surgeons have written books on "naval medical practices," such as the first such one on Earth: The Surgeon's Mate by John Woodall in 1617 or The Starship's Medicine Chest and First Aid in Space published in 2105.
A timeline of important medical discoveries, failures, and plagues that have affected various important planets, starting with the Great Plague ("skag maug") on Vulcan that killed thousands, and continuing through to the present "Federation Era." The timeline ends around 2260.
Note: This section is NOT identified with such a category heading in the book.
Following this is a list of all the elements, their chemical symbols, their atomic numbers (by mass number of most stable isotope), their atomic masses, the places of their discoveries, and the dates of their discoveries. (If Humans discovered it prior to first contact, that place and date is given.) All dates are by Earth calendar, unless specially marked using the Vulcan calendar, which lists Vulcan years post-Surak.
Within this section are described a variety of electromagnetic and particulate radiations, and three distinct radioactive elements (specifically, radium, uranium, and celebium) are identified. This is followed by a drawing depicting two types of injurious cell mutation.
The preface text is described as being drawn from the Star Fleet Handbook of Pharmacology, 5th Edition, whose specific author is not named.
- their names together with their chemical compositions (depicted by structural formulae);
- their histories, derivations, and origins;
- their classifications;
- the mechanisms of their actions;
- their clinical uses;
- the usual dosages of each that should be administered; and
- possible side effects and toxic effects that can result from their employment.
The preface text is drawn from "Pathology: Treating The Unknown, 3rd Edition," which in turn is credited to Dr. Leonard McCoy, M.D.
This section lists diseases, some afflicting characters in TOS and some afflicting characters in TAS. The table that so lists them provides, for each disease:
- its name and description;
- its cause or pathogen, or "etiological agent," if known;
- the onset time of its symptoms and the incubation period of its cause, if known;
- its signs and symptoms, if known; and
- the prognosis and treatment of the patient afflicted with it, if known.
One disease NOT listed is "interphase psychosis," whose treatment Dr. Leonard McCoy is credited for having found to be a dilution of a theragen derivative with ethanol in a 3:500 ratio. (TOS: "The Tholian Web")
This section of the book is prefaced with text drawn from an edition of The Starship's Medicine Chest and First Aid in Space specified as having been published in 2257.
|Average weight:||70 kilos (male)|
45 kilos (female)
|Blood pressure:||160/110 (male)|
Andorians are a blue-skinned humanoid species, average height 2.3 meters (male) and 1.8 meters (female). They have a life expectancy of 129 years (male) and 134 years (female).
Their eyes are unusual in that they do not process the whole spectrum of light, and must be used in unison with their antennae. Andorian vision is called "quadroscopic," and in retinal terms at least it is limited to tones of gray. Their auditory receptors (in their antennae) are more advanced then many other humanoids, capable of distinguishing independent sounds from a crowd. Also, to provide better focus for their senses, Andorians will lean their head down towards a person they are listening to, to obtain better focus from their monodirectional antennae.
|Average weight:||200 kilos (male)|
100 kilos (female)
|Blood pressure:||80/50 (male)|
- Reptiloid biped (Homo lacertae)
The Gorn(s) are a green reptilian humanoid species, average height 2 meters (male) and 1.4 meters (female). They have a life expectancy of 55 years (male) and 21 years (female).
Being cold-blooded, they require ambient warmth and prefer to live in tropical climates. Their respiratory system is less advanced then most, and provides just enough oxygen to the body to remain functioning. One internal source of temperature is when a female Gorn gives birth: Gorn(s) lay eggs, which hatch while still inside the oviduct – this only appears to be live birth. Their eyes are covered in thousands of facets, each with its own protective lid.
|Average weight:||70 kilos (male)|
60 kilos (female)
Humans are a red-blooded "humanoid" species (originators of the name) with average heights of 1.7 meters for males and 1.5 meters for females. They have a life expectancy of 115 years for males and 122 years for females.
Information on Human anatomy is abundant, and as such is not included in this particular manual. Texts regarding Humans are available at your local Star Fleet Supply Center for merely five credits. Or, for more information, you are advised to contact:
- Star Fleet Surgeon General
- Federation Institute of Medicine
- 1 Zefram Cochrane Plaza, New York City
- Earth – Sol System – United Federation of Planets
|Average weight:||90 kilos (male)|
65 kilos (female)
Klingons are a well-known "humanoid" species famous for their use of bio-engineering by their government to selectively breed out the impure in their species, so only the best survive. They have an average heights of 1.9 meters (male) and 1.7 meters (female). They have a life expectancy of 82 years (male) and 69 years (female).
Their single stomach has two duodenums, which increase digestive flow efficiency to their small intestines. Special notice is given to their small intestine, and physicians should be careful: as their unique design is "stairway-like levels," which first twist downward, then upward again into the large intestine. The higher body temperature of a Klingon is caused by his or her second liver.
|Average weight:||80 kilos (male)|
150 kilos (female)
|Blood pressure:||160/110 (male)|
Tellarites are a vaguely pig-like humanoid species, known to share several characteristics with the non-sentient lifeform. They have an average heights of 1.8 meters (male) and 2.2 meters (female). They have a life expectancy of 87 years (male) and 93 years (female).
Tellarites's legs end in two-toed feet with hooves; their femur is notable for missing the third trochanter, and their fibula is vestigial. Their digestive system is designed for plants, and as such they have two stomachs which utilize bacteria to break down the food before entering their single intestine. They often have multiple births, and their sense of smell and hearing is advanced for a humanoid, while their eyesight is sub-par.
|Average weight:||70 kg (male)|
50 kg (female)
|Average height:||2.0 meters (male)|
1.7 meters (female)
Vulcans are a green-blooded humanoid species with average heights of 2.0 meters (male) and 1.7 meters (female). They have a life expectancy of 250 years.
Average Vulcan anatomy (Star Fleet Medical Reference Manual)
Males height = 2.0 meters (6'6") Males weight = 70kg (154.3 lbs)
Females height = 1.7 meters (5'6") Females weight = 50kg (110.2 lbs)
Body temperature = 32.78C (91°F) Heart rate = 242 bpm Blood pressure = 80/40
This section, which, like the earlier section on humanoid anatomy, is prefaced with text drawn from an edition of The Starship's Medicine Chest and First Aid in Space which is specified as having been published in 2257, lists sapient non-humanoid alien beings and identifies either the planets to which they are indigenous or, as in the cases of Korob and Sylvia, the planets where they were found.
- Medusan – Xi Hydrae V
The Kelvans are not shown in their true forms.
This section is prefaced by text drawn from the Star Fleet Guide To Alien Life, Volume 17: Parasites.
- Denebian slime devil – Deneb IV (Denebia carnivora)
- Flying parasite – Large Magellanic Cloud? – "Blastoneuron"
- Regulan bloodworm – Regulus II (Regulani vermis)
- Tribble – Iota Geminorium IV (Polygreminus grex)
This section is prefaced by text drawn from the Star Fleet Guide To Alien Life, Volume 8: Plants.
Shown in TOS: "A Private Little War". Described here as being part of the diet of the Mugato/Gumato, in whose droppings its seeds are dispersed, according to the accompanying text. (But see "First Aid" below.)
This section delves into the subject of psionic abilities, listing such examples of possessors of them as Charles Evans, in TOS: "Charlie X", the Platonians, in TOS: "Plato's Stepchildren"; Lieutenant Commander Gary Mitchell and Dr. Elizabeth Dehner, both in TOS: "Where No Man Has Gone Before"; and Apollo, in TOS: "Who Mourns for Adonais?"
- Artificial Ventilation (Gorn)
- Carry Techniques (Human in all depictions)
- Three-man lift
- Chair carry
- Four-handed seat
- Two-handed seat
- Pulling the victim (Human)
- Lifting & supporting the victim (Human)
- Classification of Burns (Vulcan)
- Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) (Human)
- Dislocation of the Superior Cortex (Andorian)
- Mouth-to-mouth Resuscitation (Vulcan)
- Foreign Body Obstruction of the Airway
- Abdominal thrust (Andorian)
- Chest thrust (Tellarite)
- Supine abdominal thrust (Gorn)
These are all variations of the Heimlich maneuver, though this is not explicitly stated.
- Mugato Bite
- Opening the Mouth (Human)
- Vulcan Cardiac Arrest
The sickbay diagnostic scanner, the accompanying image of which shows its scales as having been calibrated for Humans, specifies these life signs:
- Temperature, in Fahrenheit and Celsius;
- Brain K3, described here as measuring the brain's electrical activity;
- Lungs. Specifically, their capacity in liters, or cubic decimeters;
- Cell rate, or partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the respiratory system in mmHg;
- Blood Q5; this means heart activity (notably electrical stimulus, or beat), as two pumping actions in count/minute; and
- Blood T2×10, or mean diastolic blood pressure in mmHg.
- The book was first released in 1977 as a fan publication by "Star Fleet Productions, Inc." This, in turn, was an off-shoot of "The Federation Trading Post," a fan-based Star Trek store located in New York City in the mid-1970s, which Douglas Drexler and his friend Ron Barlow then ran jointly. In the same year, the book was picked up by Ballantine Books for an official release, and as such it saw two printings, the first in October and the second a month later in November. Drexler, upon retrospection, has commented, "It was an awful book, really. I cringe when I look at it now." (The Official Star Trek: Deep Space Nine Magazine issue 11, p. 51)
- Though the Star Fleet Medical Reference Manual has never been officially considered a canon work, several of the images from the "Intelligent Aliens" and "Parasites" chapter showed up, nevertheless, in Star Trek: Deep Space Nine's first season episode "The Nagus" on an LCARS graphic in the back of the schoolroom, making the internal physiology shown in the book at least partially canon. These included the ornithoid aliens encountered on Pyris VII; the Horta of Janus VI, described as being a Silicon cycle life form; the carbon-cycle life forms encountered on Excalbia; the Tribbles (Polygeminus grex) of Iota Geminorum IV; the Regulan bloodworm (Regulani vermis) of Regulus II; the flying parasites, or "Blastoneurons," whose origin was captioned "Large Magellanic Cloud?"; and the Denebian slime devil (Denebia carnivora) of Deneb IV. Geoffrey Mandel, a friend of Drexler since the latter's Star Trek store days, had actually drawn these images for the Star Fleet Medical Reference Manual, as stated above. He later used these images when he served as a production assistant for Deep Space Nine. Drexler himself served on this last series as a production illustrator, and he was responsible for the creations of many of the LCARS displays seen on the show.
- Other publications have utilized images derived from this book after they had been featured on Star Trek: Deep Space Nine. Star Trek: The Magazine Volume 3, Issue 7, p. 89, featured the internal anatomy of a tribble, and Star Trek: The Starfleet Survival Guide (p. 110) features a diagram of a Denebian slime devil that first appeared in this book.
- This is neither the first nor the last example of Star Trek using the non-canon reference books, or sometimes even the unauthorized ones, in any of the television shows. Some of the early Star Trek films used images from the Star Fleet Technical Manual by Franz Joseph, while Star Trek: The Motion Picture also used images of Joseph's Constitution-class Star Trek Blueprints. Also, the RPG reference book Among the Clans was used by the writing staff of Star Trek: Enterprise when creating the Ushaan, as well as making Andoria a frozen planet.
- The type font used for the majority of the text was not known at the time. For headings, Microgramma Extended Medium was used, in all capitals.